Many children worldwide suffer from poor health and nutrition, receive inadequate support for their socio-emotional development, and lack quality early-learning opportunities to prepare them for first grade. Inequalities in child development are stark: cross-country evidence shows that by the time children enter primary school, significant gaps already exist in their development. Nearly half of children under five in developing countries are stunted or live in extreme poverty, threatening their ability to benefit from the opportunities education can provide (1).
Improving early childhood care and education to set children on high-development trajectories requires fostering their cognitive and socioemotional development through early child nutrition, health care, stimulation, and learning opportunities. Interventions will have the greatest impact when they are multi-sectoral, integrated, and holistic (2).
Investments in pre-primary education can:
In 2015, 69% of children participated in pre-primary learning worldwide, including just 43% of children in low-income countries. This compares to 92% of children in high-income countries. Just one in five children in low-income countries around the world attend preschool, and the one-quarter of children worldwide who are stunted cannot achieve their potential in school (1). Stunting is also associated with reduced school participation and achievement and can reduce income in adulthood by as much as 22% (3). Less than two-thirds of children aged 36 to 59 months are developmentally on schedule in several countries, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mauritania, and Nepal (4).
Children Aged 3–6: Interventions to help children develop in their early years can improve their chances of success in later years. By the time children enter primary school, gaps in cognitive development are already apparent, with children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds lagging noticeably behind children from wealthier backgrounds (2).
Poor and Disadvantaged Students: Globally, children in the richest households are two to three times as likely to be enrolled in preprimary school compared to children from the poorest households (2). Poor children are more exposed to health shocks and less likely to receive stimulation, care, and protection from stress. Nutrient deprivation, infectious diseases, and chemically toxic or physically dangerous environments affect many poor children not only after birth but also in the womb (1).
Parents and Caregivers: In the child’s first year of life, interaction with parents (or a caregiver substitute) is the main source of stimulation. Programs that build caregivers’ capacity to support healthy development can substantially improve outcomes for their children (1). Investments in this strategy can ensure adequate flexibility and compensation for parents so they have the resources to select appropriate care for their children (2).
Teachers: Settings with qualified and trained early childhood development professionals yield improved cognitive and social development outcomes.
Schools: Establishing infrastructure and service-delivery standards for centers providing early childhood development services, such as adequate space for all students and ensuring the overall safety of the learning environment, can ensure that all children are guaranteed at least a minimum level of quality and safety. In addition, small class sizes and high caregiver-to-child ratios are structural inputs associated with positive child outcomes.
The level of access to preprimary school in developing countries ranges from a low of 21% in Southern Asia to a high of 75% in Latin America and the Caribbean, contrasting with near-universal access to primary school in many developed countries (4). Within countries, there are significant inequalities in access to preprimary school by socioeconomic status. Many children in low- and lower-middle-income countries suffer malnutrition, worms, malaria, and high levels of disability, all of which affect their ability to learn (3).
Investments in early childhood care and education can address early gaps in opportunity, yielding sustained high returns and lifelong benefits for participants and society in general, including reduced inequality (1), increased wage-earning potential, decreased crime, and lower reliance on welfare. Participating in quality pre-primary programs increases the likelihood of primary school attendance and decreases grade repetition and drop-out rates. High-quality preschools also improve school readiness, leading to better primary school outcomes, particularly for poor and disadvantaged students (3). Regarding early childhood care, well-nourished children who are free from disease are better able to participate in school and learn (5).
A robust system for early childhood care and education must be integrated, with programs in all essential sectors and targeting all groups, including pregnant women, infants and toddlers, preschoolers, and caregivers. Additionally, monitoring and evaluation are essential to ensure program quality, protect children’s well-being, and promote their development and learning.
Since the economic value of early-childhood programs is often highest for those least likely to receive services, success should be measured not just by examining national averages but by comparing differences in access across different segments of society. Increasing preschool enrollment to 50% of all children in low- and middle-income countries could increase lifetime earnings by an estimated USD 15–34 billion (2).
The returns to investment in early childhood development also have a strong gender component. Besides directly increasing female labor force participation, access to affordable and high-quality childcare correlates with increased female participation in primary and secondary school, as older female siblings are freed from the expectation that they care for younger children (2).
More than 200 million children younger than five living in low- and middle-income countries fail to reach their developmental potential because of the negative consequences of poverty, nutritional deficiencies, and inadequate learning opportunities (2). One in four children younger than five have stunted growth and development due to undernutrition (3).
Investments in early childhood care and education prepare children for school, promoting better educational outcomes. Growing evidence demonstrates that the returns to investments in children’s early years are substantial and efficient compared to equivalent investments made later in life. Investments in early childhood development have been linked to lifelong benefits for recipients and society in general, including increased wage-earning potential, decreased incarceration rates, and lower reliance on social welfare (2).
Some examples of impact from investments aligned with this strategy include the following:
Stakeholder Participation Risk: Inappropriate tailoring of products to address client needs, preferences, and local norms, misunderstanding of the objectives and experiences of those affected by poor early childhood care and education, or stakeholder mistrust in education or health service providers can greatly reduce positive impact. Mitigating this risk requires that investors adapt to local norms, particularly when promoting early-childhood health, nutrition, and psychosocial wellbeing.
External Risk: The lack of a supportive local regulatory agency for health could impede the development of early-childhood care and education. Investors can mitigate this risk by understanding existing regulatory environments and resources available to affected stakeholders that may impact their access to quality early childhood care and education. Investors should also thoroughly understand the plans businesses and initiatives have designed to encourage uptake of their product or service.
Execution Risk: Some solutions could benefit an unintended demographic in a given country or context, perhaps benefiting upper-middle classes or private schools, for example, and deepening inequalities. To mitigate this risk, investors should collect data and indicators to verify the demographic served by the investee or fund.
Evidence Risk: Efforts to assess impact may be hindered if a startup lacks the capacity to monitor and evaluate all of their outcome metrics. Inability to measure impact metrics or reliance on a third party to monitor progress introduces the risk for error. To mitigate that risk, investors should carefully consider the type of indicators investees provide and require realistic social impact performance metrics that better relate to the intended outcome of their solution.
These risks could prevent clients from effectively leveraging provided services and could even negatively impact clients who face opportunity costs from the use of products and services that are do not meet their needs.
Hippocampus Learning Centres operates preschools designed to improve learning opportunities in rural India. The company’s kindergarten programs aim to educate preschoolers to achieve personal standards of excellence in both academic and non-academic areas through self-learning, enabling students to recognize and optimize their full potential. Lok Capital invested in this solution, among other investors. Hippocampus has 700 learning centers serving 11,000 students.
Kinedu provides an educational platform intended to help parents develop nourishing and meaningful relationships with their toddlers through creative activities. The platform includes activity videos based on the latest research from both Harvard and Stanford’s Departments of Child Development and field tested in Advenio Child Centers, enabling parents to boost the cognitive, social, linguistic, emotional, and physical progress of their toddlers in early development. Social Capital and 500 Startups invested in this solution, among other investors. Over three million families are using Kinedu’s early childhood development solution to date.
Kidogo provides childcare services intended to offer educational services to people living in Nairobi’s urban slums. These services include play-based learning, child-centered learning, and holistic development, offering families living in informal settlements and urban slums proper access to education. Village Capital, Education Design Studios, and the United Nations Foundation invested in this solution, among other investors. Kidogo has benefited more than 1,000 mothers and provided more than 500,000 hours of play-based early childhood development education to date.
Filmer, Deon, Halsey Rogers, Samer Al-Samarrai, Magdalena Bendini, Tara Béteille, David Evans, Märt Kivine, Shwetlena Sabarwal, Alexandria Valerio et al. World Development Report 2018: Learning to Realize Education’s Promise. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018.World Bank Group. “World Development Report 2018: Learning to Realize Education’s Promise.” Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018. http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2018
Neuman, Michelle J., and Amanda E. Devercelli. Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER). “What Matters Most for Early Childhood Development: A Framework Paper.” Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) SABER Working Paper Series #No. 5, Washington, DC,. World Bank, January 2013.
Steer, Liesbet, Justin W. van Fleet, Gila Sacks, Nicholas Burnett, Paul Isenman, Elizabeth King, Annababette Wils et al. The Learning Generation: Investing in Education for a Changing World. New York: International Commission on Financing Global Education Opportunity, 2016.
UNESCO. Accountability in Education: Meeting Our Commitments. Global Education Monitoring Report, 2017/8. Paris: UNESCO, 2017.
Snilstveit, Birte, Jennifer Stevenson, Radhika Menon, Daniel Phillips, Emma Gallagher, Maisie Geleen, Hannah Jobse, Tanja Schmidt, and Emmanuel Jimenez. International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie). “The Iimpact of Eeducation Pprogrammes on Llearning and Sschool Pparticipation in Llow- and Mmiddle-Iincome Ccountries.” 3ie Systematic Review Summary 7. London: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie), September 2016. http://www.3ieimpact.org/evidence-hub/publications/systematic-review-summaries/impact-education-programmes-learning-school-participation-low-and-middle-income-countries
This mapped evidence shows what outcomes and impacts this strategy can have, based on academic and field research.
Jung, Haeil; Hasan, Amer. 2014. The impact of early childhood education on early achievement gaps : evidence from the Indonesia early childhood education and development (ECED) project (English). Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 6794; Impact Evaluation series ; no. IE 119. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.
Nakajima, Nozomi, Amer Hasan, Haeil Jung, Sally Anne Brinkman, Menno Prasad Pradhan, and Angela Kinnell. 2016. “Investing in School Readiness: An Analysis of the Cost-Effectiveness of Early Childhood Education Pathways in Rural Indonesia.” Policy Research Working Paper 7832, World Bank, Washington, DC
Watanabe, K. R. Flores, J. Fujiwara and L.T. H. Tran. 2005. “Early Childhood Development Interventions and Cognitive Development of Young Children in Rural Vietnam.” Journal of Nutrition 135 (8): 1918-25.
Each resource is assigned a rating of rigor according to the NESTA Standards of Evidence.
Number of students enrolled as of the end of the reporting period, both full-time and part-time, where each discrete student is counted regardless of number of courses.
Organizations should footnote a breakdown of full-time and part-time students.
The data would have to be gathered via school reportings.
Investors can use this metric to understand if the strategy is successfully reaching the desired outcome of “Improved primary school enrollment”.
Rate of student attendance during the reporting period.
'= 1 - [(Number of absentee days of students during the reporting period) / (Number of school days in the reporting period * School Enrollment: Total (PI2389))]
Organizations should footnote all assumptions used, including details on how attendance is tracked.
When calculating this metric, the number of absentee days of students during the reporting period should be the sum of the total number of days per student. For example, if two students were absent on the same day, the number of absentee days would be 2.
To understand if enrolled students are actually attending school, giving more context to the metric “Total School Enrollment.”
Number of students per teacher during the reporting period.
= (School Enrollment: Total (PI2389)) / (Teachers Employed (OI5896))
Organizations should footnote all assumptions used.
The data would have to be gathered via school reportings.
To understand whether solutions are contributing to reduction of overcrowding.
Describes the organization’s initiatives to engage with the community/parents.
Organizations should footnote descriptive details about the engagement(s).
Information would have to be gathered via school or other third party reportings.
To understand how the served institution is engaging parents and communities and how their solution is contributing to improving that engagement, an important element of this strategy.
Describes the diseases/conditions addressed by the organization’s products or services provided during the reporting period. Select all that apply:
General: Primary Care
General: Acute or Emergency Care
Specific: Infectious and parasitic diseases
Specific: Infections and parasitic diseases: Tuberculosis
Specific: Infections and parasitic diseases: HIV/AIDS
Specific: Infections and parasitic diseases: Diarrheal diseases
Specific: Infections and parasitic diseases: Childhood cluster diseases
Specific: Infections and parasitic diseases: Malaria
Specific: Infections and parasitic diseases: Tropical-cluster diseases
Specific: Respiratory infections
Specific: Maternal conditions
Specific: Prenatal period
Specific: Nutritional deficiencies
Specific: Malignant neoplasms (cancer)
Specific: Other neoplasms
Specific: Diabetes mellitus
Specific: Endocrine disorders
Specific: Neuropsychiatric conditions
Specific: Sense organ diseases
Specific: Cardiovascular diseases
Specific: Respiratory diseases
Specific: Digestive diseases
Specific: Genitourinary diseases
Specific: Skin diseases
Specific: Musculoskeletal diseases
Specific: Congenital anomalies
Specific: Oral conditions
Specific: Unintentional injuries
Specific: Unintentional injuries: Traffic accidents
Specific: Intentional injuries
Sources: World Health Organization 2004 Global Burden of Disease Report http://www.who.int/topics/global_burden_of_disease/en/
Organizations should footnote details about how their products and services address these diseases/conditions. See usage guidance for further information.
This metric provides an overview of the types of diseases and conditions addressed by organizations operating in the Health sector.
Organizations that focus on these disease/conditions but do not provide direct treatment should select the diseases/conditions that their products/services address (for example, an organization that produces and sells vaccines should choose the diseases/conditions to which those vaccines address).
Organizations can report on this metric at an organization level (selecting all relevant answer options) or at the specific product/service level (selecting only one disease/condition for the product/service the organization is reporting against).
To understand if the strategy is contributing to improved health, nutrition, and wellbeing.
Number of individuals who received training offered by the organization during the reporting period.
Organizations should footnote the type and extent of the training provided as well as who the training was provided to. See usage guidance for further information.
The metric is intended to capture the number of individuals that received training services (of any type) provided by the organization. Training may or may not be restricted to clients of the organization. This metric may be applicable for organizations operating in the microfinance, agriculture, or other sectors that provide training to clients and other community members.
Examples of training types, to footnote, could include: enterprises/business development, women’s empowerment, educational services, etc.
Training may be fee-based or provided for free. Training of an organization’s own employees is not included in this metric.
To understand the scale and reach of teachers and caregivers’ training solutions.